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邯郸月嫂:早产儿的营养及喂养要点

更新时间2017-03-24 09:34:30  点击次数:540次
早产儿的出生,会让爸爸妈妈变得繁忙起来,因为,早产儿照顾起来要比足月婴儿麻烦许多,首先在营养及喂养上,家长就需注意一些要点,在这里,小编就整理出早产儿的营养及喂养要点,列举如下,希望有早产儿的家长能仔细阅读。 <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       <a href="http://mama.lebei5.com/chanqian/2013-10/16702.html" style="outline: none; text-decoration: none; cursor: pointer; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); padding-bottom: 1px; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-style: dotted; border-bottom-color: rgb(153, 153, 153);" target="_blank" title="点击查看大图和原文"><img alt="" height="225" src="https://rescdn.qqmail.com/dyimg/20160726/765E996294A9.jpg" style="border: none; vertical-align: middle; max-width: 586px;" width="400" /></a></p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       <strong>早产儿的营养及喂养:</strong></p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       目前各界较重视,一般主张早喂养,使其生理体重下降时间缩短,或程度减轻,低血糖率发生减少,血胆红素浓度相对减少。一般生后6~12小时开始喂糖水,24小时开始喂乳,体重过低或一般情况较差者,如曾发生紫绀、呼吸困难或手术产者,可适当推迟喂养,静脉补液。</p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       <strong>哺喂方法:</strong></p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       按早产儿成熟情况不同而异,对出生体重较重的、吮吸反射良好的,可直接哺乳,反之用滴管或胃管喂养。</p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       摄入量随早产儿出生体重及成熟程度而定,可参考早产儿摄入量计算公式。</p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       出生10天内早产儿每日哺乳量(ml)=(婴儿出生实足天数+10)×体重(克/100)</p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       10天后每日哺乳量(ml)=1/5-1/4体重(克)</p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       以上摄入量为最大摄入量,如早产儿不能吃完,可将剩余部分由静脉补充,以保证蛋白质、热卡和水分的供给。</p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       喂奶间隔时间:可根据奶方和体重安排,一般体重1000克以下者,每小时喂一次;1001~1500克者,每1.5小时喂一次;1501~2000克,每2小时喂一次;2001~2500克,每3小时一次,或具体情况分别对待。</p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       <strong>早产儿营养需要量的问题,是个不断探讨研究的问题:</strong></p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       一般认为早产儿对热量的要求高于成熟儿,每日每公斤体重需热卡110~150千卡。因早产儿安静代谢率,指肺呼吸的作功比成熟儿大,但吸收能力低于成熟儿,所以热能的供给还是以稍低开始为宜。视情况逐步加多。</p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       <strong>蛋白质:</strong></p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       成熟儿从母乳中摄入的蛋白质占总热量的6~7%,早产儿摄入的蛋白质占总热量的10.2%,高于正常儿。</p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       <strong>氨基酸</strong>:</p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       正常儿必需氨基酸为9种,早产儿为11种,因早产儿缺乏有关的转化酶,不能将蛋氨酸转化成胱氨酸,苯丙氨酸转化成酪氨酸,因此胱氨酸、酪氨酸成为必需氨基酸,必须从食物中摄取。</p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       <strong>无机盐</strong>:</p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       早产儿比成熟儿需要的多,因为胎儿的最后阶段,是无机盐增加的阶段,如:钙、磷、铁都要增加,不足月的,早产儿体内就会缺乏无机盐。</p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       <strong>维生素:</strong></p> <p style="line-height: 23.8px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       早产儿缺维生素e,易出现溶血性贫血,早产儿对脂肪的吸收率不如成熟儿,并可能缺乏脂溶性维生素及其它营养素。早产儿食配方食品还是以母乳喂养好,待研究。总之早产儿的营养应因人而异。因情况不同,个体差异,营养上应结合个体情况细致考虑。</p>
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